- Reflex and mechanical stimulationis produced by superficial many-needle acupuncture of the certain zones and the biologically active points (reflex reaction) and by micromassage of the skin and underlying tissues.
The effect which the needle stimulation has on the active points of the channel (ceptors) consists of the three interconnected parts: local, segmental and general reaction. The local reaction shows itself in change of the skin area blood filling, in change of temperature, sensitivity, electric potential and resistance in the zone of stimulation. The segmental reaction is conditioned by segmental and metameric reflex connections between the certain areas of the skin and segments of the spinal cord which correspond them, and where the nerve fibres innervating certain internal organs originate from. The impulses coming into the nerve centers for a long time and reflected reaction which follow it affect, in their turn, the state of the peripheral captors and tissues located in the zone of the stimulation.
The general reaction of the body is similar to the reaction of adaptation and is produced by coming of the impulses from the spinal cord through the special nerve trunks to the brain. The fact that the vegetative nervous system participates in the process enables to mobilize the resources of the body for an instant action: production of the biologically active matters in the endocrine glands, tissues and, first of all, in the skin increases rapidly; the work of the cardio-vascular system is stimulated; the blood filling is redistributed; the matters able to produce more energy, to transport more oxygen, to fortify resistance of the body against pathological factors get into blood.
- Galvanic and electric stimulation.A human body is a complicated biocolloid which consist of electrolytes and contains both positive ions (cations) and negative ions (anions). Intensity of galvanic and electric stimulation is regulated by the body itself and depends on the quantity of electrolyte contained in the tissues (skin layers, subcutaneous fat, underlying structures). Painful and inflamed area of the skin is edematic, there is a lot of liquid in it, that is why contact of the area with the applicator results in intensive reaction during which a great deal of energy is released, it is sometimes accompanied with sweat exudation.
When the applicator contacts with the skin, a lot of physical and chemical changes, typical to those taking place under the action of direct currents, occur on the surface of the applicator needles. As a result, oxide layers are formed on the needles and the effect of galvanization is produced. At the same time, point galvanic currents of maximum value arise on the tips of the needles (it happens owing to the potential difference between the basic metal of the needle and the peripheral metals of the coating which are closed short-circuit (I1) (fig. 1). Besides, the galvanic currents between the needles made of different metals arise in the skin (I2), their value depends on the conductivity of the skin and the concentration of the electrolyte in it (fig. 2).
Fig. 1. The sketch of the electric ionic currents arising on the tips of the metal needles coated with other metals, which is accompanied by electrophoresis (diffusion) of the metals into internal medium of the body.
Fig. 2. The sketch of the electric ionic currents arising on the tips of the needles and between the needles made of different metals, which is accompanied with electrophoresis (diffusion) of the metal into internal medium of the body.
Galvanization improves metabolism, intensifies recovery processes, produces resolving effect, promotes production of the biologically active matters (acetylcholine, histamine, heparin, etc.), makes the nerve impulses conduction better, decreases pain sensitivity.
3. Humoral effectis produced by microionophoresis of metals, which the needles are made of (copper, zinc, nickel, iron and silver), into the liquid medium of the body. All these microelements are necessary to secure normal functioning of different organs and system.